Integration, Migration, TransnationalizationΒΆ

Migration and forced migration are changing German society. The SOEP offers diverse migration samples and numerous specific migration questions that allow researchers to study migration-related questions in detail. The modules on integration, migration, and transnationalization provide data on migration histories, discrimination, inter-ethnic contact, education, cultural integration, transnational relations, identification with Germany, and the intention to stay in Germany.






Individual Questionnaire

Applying for German citizenship

(unregelmaessig) [1998-2018]


Circle of friends, percentage of migrants



Contacts abroad, thoughts about moving abroad


plj0089, plj0090, plj0091, plj0092, plj0104, plj0105

Country of origin



Disadvantage / discrimination based on ethnic origins (detailed)


plh0387i01, plh0387i02, plh0387i04, plh0387i05, plh0387i06, plh0387i07, plh0387i08, plh0387i09, plh0387i10, plh0387i11, plj0048_v1, plj0048_v2, plj0327, plj0328, plj0329, plj0330, plj0331, plj0332, plj0333, plj0334, plj0335, plj0336, plj0337, plj0338, plj0339

Foreign language skills



Integration indicators

(unregelmaessig) [1984-2018], (unregelmaessig) [1997-2019], [2020]

plj0078, plj0080_v1, plj0080_v2

Intention to stay

[1996-2011,2015-2020], [2013], [1996-2011,2013,2015-2020], [2020], [1984-2011,2013,2015-2020], [1996-2011,2013,2015-2020]

plj0085_v1, plj0085_v2, plj0086_v1, plj0086_v2, plj0087, plj0088

Language ability German

[2007-2011,2013-2020], [2010-2011,2013-2020]

plj0071, plj0072, plj0073

Language ability native language

[2007-2011,2013-2019], [2010-2011,2013-2019]

plj0074, plj0075, plj0076

Language use, media

[2014,2016], [2017-2020]

plj0226_v1, plj0226_v2

Language use, newspapers

(unregelmaessig) [1988-2012]


Native language



Native language (family)

[2013,2015-2020], [2013], [2015-2020]

plm0136_h, plm0136_v1, plm0136_v2

Native language (friends)

[2013,2015-2020], [2013], [2015-2020]

plm0137_h, plm0137_v1, plm0137_v2

Native language (workplace)

[2013,2015-2020], [2013], [2015-2020]

plm0138_h, plm0138_v1, plm0138_v2

Regional attachment


plj0043, plj0044, plj0045

Sense of home

(unregelmaessig) [1988-2012], [2014]

plj0083, plj0340

Translation help


p_buh1, p_buh10, p_buh2, p_buh3, p_buh4, p_buh5, p_buh6, p_buh7, p_buh8, p_buh9

Visited country of origin in last 2 years


plj0322, plj0323

Visiting / being visited by Germans and foreigners at home

(unregelmaessig) [2007-2019]

plj0060, plj0061, plj0062, plj0063

Youth Questionnaire

Language ability German

[2006-2018], [2010-2018]

jl0248, jl0442, jl0443, jl0444, jl1249

Language ability native language

[2006-2013], [2010-2013]

jl0251, jl1251