Integration, Migration, TransnationalizationΒΆ

Migration and forced migration are changing German society. The SOEP offers diverse migration samples and numerous specific migration questions that allow researchers to study migration-related questions in detail. The modules on integration, migration, and transnationalization provide data on migration histories, discrimination, inter-ethnic contact, education, cultural integration, transnational relations, identification with Germany, and the intention to stay in Germany.





Individual Questionnaire

Applying for German citizenship (asked irregularly)


Circle of friends, percentage of migrants (asked irregularly)


Contacts abroad, thoughts about moving abroad (asked irregularly)

plj0089, plj0090, plj0091, plj0092, plj0104, plj0105

Disadvantage / discrimination based on ethnic origins (detailed) (asked irregularly)

plj0048_v1, plj0048_v2, plj0327, plj0328, plj0329, plj0330, plj0331, plj0332, plj0333, plj0334, plj0335, plj0336, plj0337, plj0338, plj0339

Foreign language skills (asked only once)


Integration indicators (asked irregularly)

plj0078, plj0080

Intention to stay (asked irregularly)

plj0085_v1, plj0085_v2, plj0086, plj0087, plj0088

Language ability German / native language (asked irregularly)

plj0071, plj0072, plj0073, plj0074, plj0075, plj0076

Language use, media (asked irregularly)

plj0226_v1, plj0226_v2

Language use, newspapers (asked irregularly)


Native language (asked annually)

plj0324, plj0325, plj0326

Native language (asked irregularly)


Regional attachment (asked irregularly)

plj0043, plj0044, plj0045

Sense of home (asked irregularly)


Sense of home (asked only once)


Visited country of origin in last 2 years (asked irregularly)

plj0322, plj0323

Visiting / being visited by Germans and foreigners at home (asked irregularly)

plj0060, plj0061, plj0062, plj0063

Youth Questionnaire

Language ability German / native language (asked annually)

jl0248, jl0251, jl0442, jl0443, jl0444, jl1249, jl1251