Survey Concepts and Modes¶
Measuring stability and detecting changes means to repeat (almost) identical measures over time. Furthermore, the SOEP-questions capture stability and change by varying with regard to the time dimension, asking about events in the past, the present, and the future. Conceptually, different measurements of time are used:
- Questions about a point in time (present) e.g. current employment status or current levels of satisfaction
- Single retrospective questions on certain events in the past e.g. how often did you change your job during the last ten years?
- Retrospective life event history since the age of 15 (in the past) e.g. employment or marital history
- Monthly calendar information on income and labor market participation (in the past) e.g. employment status January through December last year
- Questions concerning a period of time (in the past) e.g. demographic changes since the last interview like marriage or death of spouse
- Questions concerning future prospects (future) e.g. satisfaction with life five years from now, or job expectations
The SOEP uses several different modes to collect the data. Originally, the respondent’s answers were recorded by an interviewer who filled in a paper questionnaire, the so called pen-and-paper interview or PAPI. The personal contact between interviewer and respondent is important for the success of the survey; however, before losing a respondent due to a scheduling conflict between interviewer and respondent, the SOEP allows mailing in the questionnaire starting from the second wave of subsamples A-I. This concept does not resemble the concept of a regular mail survey, because the interviewer still keeps the personal contact with the household and schedules appointments with its respondents if possible. Starting with subsample J, only the computer assisted mode (CAPI) is allowed, and thus mailing in the questionnaires is no longer possible.
While the interviewer is in the household she/he directly conducts an interview with any household member, but can also hand out a questionnaire to other household members, who fill it in with or without her/his help (self-administered questionnaires, SAQ). This is much more time efficient for the interviewer, because household members can work in parallel on their questionnaires.
In 1998, interviews were conducted with computers for the first time, in computer-assisted personal interviews, or in CAPI mode. Compared to PAPI, CAPI is much more efficient in transferring the data into an electronic format, which was an important asset especially with the extensions of the panel starting in the year 2000. The CAPI mode was first conducted in parallel to the PAPI mode, meaning that interviewers and respondents were free to chose how they wanted to do the interview. This was important for the “older” sample members (respondents as well as interviewers), who were used to the PAPI concept. Only in the most recent samples (starting in subsample J), CAPI is the only mode. The figure depicts the development of modes up to 2011, showing that the CAPI mode has gained importance since its implementation.
Since the questionnaires have to be identical in both modes, the CAPI implementation is relatively simple compared to what would be technically feasible. For example, the SOEP basically does not use any form of dependent interviewing (i.e. referring to respondent data from previous waves), because this cannot be easily implemented in the PAPI-mode. Also, the filtering structure is very simple in the SOEP, because any respondent must be able to follow the interview path on her/his own on paper. Still, some technical features like the control of value ranges (e.g. month of birth, year of first marriage) or the randomization of scale items are implemented in the CAPI version of the questionnaire.
In the future, new modes will be introduced into the SOEP as they develop. The computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) is close to implementation, it will, however, not be used as a replacement of the current CAPI and PAPI modes, but rather as an extension the respondents may use similar to the mail-in or self-administered questionnaires. The core interview concept of the SOEP survey, the personal contact between respondent and interviewer, will not change.